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Volume 17, Issue 5, 2010
Transaction on Mechanical Engineering


Contact Time Study of Electrostatically Actuated Microsystems
 
        M. T. Ahmadian (Professor)
  • M. Moghimi Zand [MSc.]
  • B. Rashidian [PhD.]

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This paper presents a model to analyze contact phenomenon in microsystems actuated by ramp voltages, which has applications in frequency sweeping. First-order shear deformation theory is used to model dynamical system using nite element method, while nite di erence method is applied to model squeeze lm damping. The model is validated by static pull-in results. The presented hybrid FEMFDM model is utilized to compute values of contact time and dynamic behavior. Considering this model, e ects of di erent geometrical and mechanical parameters on contact time are studied. The in uence of imposing the additional reverse voltage on dynamic characteristics of the system is also investigated. It is shown that magnitude and position of applying the reverse voltage is very important in preventing pull-in instability.

Keywords:
Contact time

    Multi-layer microplates
      Pull-in instability
        Squeeze lm damping.


Aerodynamic Investigation of a Damaged Airfoil with Wall E ects
 
        B. Beheshti Boroumand (MSc.)
  • F. Rasi Marzabadi [MSc.]
  • M. Mani [Professor]
  • F. Ajalli [MSc.]

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Aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with circle, right and inverse triangle shaped damage was numerically investigated. The ow through the damage was driven by the pressure differential between the upper and lower wing surfaces. For all damage shapes, the results showed that the ow could be categorized as weak or strong jets. The jet exited the rear of the damage

    its size was determined by the width of the rear part of the hole and was dependent on the shape of the damage. Generally, when compared with an undamaged model, increasing the angle of attack for a damaged model resulted in increased loss of lift coefficient, increased drag coecient and more negative pitching moment coefficient. This effect was more severe for the right triangle case. Furthermore, the numerical results were compared with experimental data to study the effect of a wall on the ow field.

    Keywords:
    Aerodynamics
      Damage
        Airfoil
          Weak jet
            Strong jet
              Wall effect.


An Approach to the Design of Ducted Propeller
 
        F. Celik (PhD.)
  • Mesut GUNER [Professor]
  • Serkan EKINCI [MSc.]

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This paper describes a design methodology for ducted propellers operating in a non-uniform wake eld. An improved lifting line model is used to represent propeller blades where more realistic slipstream deformation behind the propeller is considered, while the duct and hub are modeled by ring vortex distributions. Duct and hub geometries are assumed to be known and their e ects on the propeller are calculated during propeller design stage. At the same time, mutual interaction between duct/hub geometry and propeller is taken into consideration based on an iterative procedure. For numerical application of the present method, a design example is carried out and the e ect of slipstream deformation is investigated in detail. Another application based on experimental work is also taken into account to present the accuracy of the calculated results by present method and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code. Finally, propulsive characteristics of ducted propellers obtained from present method are compared to those of CFD code and experimental results.

Keywords:
Ducted propeller

    Lifting line method
      Surface vorticity method
        CFD
          Slipstream deformation.


Free Vibration Analysis of Microtubules as Cytoskeleton Components: Nonlocal Euler-Bernoulli Beam Modeling
 
        O. Civalek (PhD.)
  • B. Akgoz [MSc.]

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Free vibration analysis of microtubules (MTs) is presented based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. The size e ect is taken into consideration using the Eringen's non-local elasticity theory. The governing di erential equations for MT vibrations are being solved using the Di erential Quadrature (DQ) method. Numerical results are presented to show the e ect of nonlocal behavior on the frequencies of MTs. It is hoped that the results in the manuscript may present a benchmark in the study of vibration for microtubules.

Keywords:
Microtubules

    Nonlocal elasticity
      Free vibration
        Di erential quadrature method
          Euler- Bernoulli beam.


Investigation of Wall Shear Stress Related Factors in Realistic Carotid Bifurcation Geometries and Di erent Flow Conditions
 
        B. Firoozabadi (PhD.)
  • S. Jamalian Ardakani [MSc.]
  • M. Jafarnejad [MSc.]
  • M.S. Saidi [Professor]

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Cardiovascular diseases are one of the major causes of death in the world

    atherosclerosis being one aspect. Carotid bifurcation is one of the sites that are vulnerable to this disease. Wall Shear Stress (WSS) is known to be responsible for the process of atherogenesis. In this study, we have simulated the blood ow for Newtonian and non-Newtonian, steady and unsteady, ow conditions in three idealistic and ve realistic geometries. A risk factor has been presented based on the results of wall shear stress and, then, a relation was found between geometrical features and the wall shear stress risk factor. Our main conclusions are: 1) The non-Newtonian behavior of blood elevates the value of wall shear stress, however, the wall shear stress pattern is similar, 2) The bifurcation angle is not the main cause of atherosclerosis and cannot be considered a predictor for atherosclerosis disease, and 3) The ratio of sinus diameter to the internal carotid artery diameter is more important than other geometrical factors, and the WSS pattern is in uenced by this factor.

    Keywords:
    Carotid bifurcation
      Wall shear stress
        Geometry e ect
          Non-Newtonian
            Bifurcation angle; Sinus diameter.


Suppression of Condensation Shock in Wet Steam Flow by Injection of Water Droplets in Different Regions of a Laval Nozzle
 
        M.R. Mahpeykar (PhD.)
  • E. Amirirad [MSc.]

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In this paper, a compressible, one-dimensional and two-phase ow is analytically modeled by using a homogeneous classical nucleation rate equation in a Laval nozzle. For droplet growth calculations, the heat transfer between the droplets and the surrounding steam is modeled by a free molecular ow model and a semi-empirical two-layer model which is deemed to be valid over a wide range of Knudsen numbers. In order to reduce the condensation shock strength, the water droplets are injected at the inlet, and just after the throat of the Laval nozzle. According to the results, the nucleation rate is considerably suppressed due to the small droplet injection, and, therefore, the condensation shock nearly disappears, particularly for the inlet injection of water droplets.

Keywords:
Two-phases

    Nucleation
      Condensation shock
        Injection
          Laval nozzle.


Adaptive Decoupling for Open Chain Planar Robots
 
        A. Nikoobin (PhD.)
  • M. Moradi [MSc.]
  • S. Azadi [PhD.]

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Decoupling of dynamic equations in robotic mechanisms has attracted many researchers in the recent years. This kind of decoupling can be achieved by modifying the original kinematic structure through the use of counterweights attached to the moving links. Therefore, the robotic control becomes easier due to reducing the coupling disturbances. In this paper, di erent methods of decoupling including the static balancing, Coriolis and centripetal force eliminating and dynamic balancing are introduced and their concepts are described based on Lagrange-Euler equations. The systematic adaptive approach is proposed for any open-chain planar robots whose links are connected by revolute joints. The method is tested for two-link and three-link manipulator. The results indicate that the system is fully-decoupled and simple classical approach is sucient to control it.

Keywords:
Decoupling

    Balancing
      Planar mechanism
        Robotic
          Static balancing
            Dynamic balancing.


Simulation and Experimental Validation of Flow-Current Characteristic of a Sample Hydraulic Servo Valve
 
        M. S. Sadooghi (MSc.)
  • R. Seifi [PhD.]
  • M. Saadat Foumani [PhD.]

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This paper presents a novel model to simulate the ow-current characteristic curve of an electro-hydraulic servo valve in steady state condition. This characteristic curve has three major zones: dead zone, linear zone and saturation zone. By using the presented approach, we can simulate the behavior of all types of valves including under lapped, critical center (zero lapped) and over lapped valves. A hydraulic tester has been designed and constructed for validation of the results. It can test the performance of ow-current and some other properties of the valve. Comparison of experimental and simulated curves describes that the model has an acceptable accuracy in determining the four important valve characteristics: ow gain, saturation ow, saturation current and dead zone. As a result, the model can be used for other studies such as geometrical sensitivity analysis (the ultimate objective of this modeling) or design optimization. Since this model is presented in a computer based algorithm, it can be easily used to observe and measure the e ects of change in the parameters of interest (particularly geometrical parameters of the valve) on the ow-current curve.

Keywords:
Hydraulic servo valve

    Torque motor
      Pilot circuit
        Spool
          Flow-current curve.


Investigation of the E ect of Clamping on Residual Stresses and Distortions in Butt-Welded Plates
 
        M. Seyyedian Choobi (MSc.)
  • M. Haghpanahi [Professor]
  • M. Sedighi [PhD.]

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One major disadvantage of many arc welding processes is welding-induced residual stresses and distortions. The non-uniform heating and cooling during arc welding result in non-uniform expansion and contraction of the weld and surrounding base material, which produces undesirable residual stresses and deformations in the welded joint. A number of methods can be used to control welding-induced distortions. The methods used for controlling welding distortions a ect residual stresses and vice versa. One practical method for minimizing welding angular distortions is the use of clamping. In this paper, the e ect of clamping and clamp releasing time on welding residual stresses and distortions in the single-pass butt welding of 304 stainless steel plates are investigated. Cases with and without clamping have been studied, and residual stresses and angular distortions have been predicted by three-dimensional nite element simulation. Moreover, experiments have been carried out to measure temperature histories, angular distortions and residual stresses for the unclamped case to verify the numerical model. The results of this study revealed that clamping and clamp release time have a great in uence on the distribution of residual stresses and nal angular distortions. Using clamping during welding and releasing after cooling to ambient temperature can signi cantly reduce the amount of nal angular distortions.

Keywords:
Butt-weld

    Residual stress
      Angular distortion
        Clamping
          FEM
            Experimental measurement.